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Removable bridge. For some people, successful. They have a lot of tolerance. They put that in, out. They’re comfortable. They feel good. From a biocompatible point-of-view, one of the best answers. From a lifestyle point-of-view, one of the worst…
Then, of course, you want to go to your dentist to make sure that he’s probing. If your dentist is not probing your teeth when you go to see him, I would probably ask him to do that or go to somebody else that will do that for you because this is a…
Dentists exposed to the mercury get some damage, too?
Yes, absolutely. The reason I’m standing here today is because over 30 years ago, I felt really sick, and I was wondering, “Oh god, I’m in my 30s. This is what getting old must feel like.” I felt…
Hello, this is Dr. Daniel Vinograd in San Diego, California, biological dentist, and I just wanted to touch base on pain, particularly tooth and gum pain. Basically, I wanted to give the listener an idea of what are some of the expectations and a little…
The brush border found in kidney tubule cells, cuboidal cells, in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney. We’ve discussed true cilia that beat and move the mucin out to the outside. This is found in respiratory epithelia. Stereocilia are the non-motile cilia found in the male reproductive tract. The striated border is found in the simple columnar cells lining the small intestine and the colon. These surface specializations we must remember are on the apical end or the lumen side of the epithelium. Now let’s go to the microscope and see what these things look like in regular H&E stain tissue sections. Our first demonstration will be of the simple squamous epithelium. We’ll show it to you first in low power. Remember that it lines the heart, both inside and outside, the lungs, all of small intestine and the colon. What we’re going to show you is a piece of mesentery. Mesentery is the tissue that carries and… the vessels, lymphatics , to and from the small and large intestine. On this section of simple squamous epithelium of mesentery we’ll depict cellular structures for your edification. This is the mesentery. And in the other surface here we have a simple squamous epithelium on both sides of this mesentery. This is a fold of tissue that carries these vessels that we see right here in the middle. Here’s an artery and a vein and some smaller vessels here, here and here. The other tissue is actually fat tissue and it gives you a clear appearance of this mesentery. One thing I might say when we have this under the microscope, there’s some very specific names that are given to this simple squamous epithelium that lines these body cavities like the mesentery, the small intestine, the heart and the lungs.
It’s called mesothelium. It’s just a specific name for this simple squamous epithelium. Now in these vessels we have some congealed plasma in red blood cells which give this kind of pink appearance, homogeneous appearance on the inside of these vessels but the lumen side now is lined by simple squamous epithelium, both in arteries and veins throughout the whole body. Even capillaries are lined by simple squamous epithelium. That also has a specific name too. It’s called endothelium. So the names mesothelium, the lining of the body cavity, and endothelium, for the lining of the vessels, are specific names for a simple squamous epithelium. Let’s look at this now in little higher power. OK, this is medium power. Here’s our artery. You see it’s rounded, retains its shape in this tissue section. Vein is here. Down here. That’s the plasma congealed. You know that in the body many times you have what’s known as neurovascular units. This is one here, here’s the artery, the vein and the accompanying nerve. This is the nerve right here. Let’s scan this section a little bit. Here we have the adipose tissue and the outside covering of simple squamous epithelium that we call mesothelium. Also notice here is the connective tissue that underlies this epithelium. Right in here. The basement membrane. You really don’t see it’s so small. This is a connective tissue underlying the epithelium. Now at a higher power let’s see the size and shape of this epithelium. Okay, look now. This is high power and here is the simple squamous epithelial cells. You don’t see much of the cytoplasm. All you pick out is the nucleus. The cytoplasm’s very, very small. Here’s a nuclei here, another here. This is in the vein itself. See the plasma up here? This is just congealed plasma in the red blood cells. Let’s look around this slide and see some more simple squamous epithelium. Here the cells are lined up. Here is several epithelial cells…on the inside of this vessel. The specific name for this is mesothelium. Now the artery should be… here it is. Here’s an internal elastic membrane in the connective tissue stroma. Here we go. Here is an endothelial cell. See how it kind of conforms to the wall of this vessel. Here’s the plasma to the left. Now even in the smaller vessels…let’s hunt around to see if we can find some of them. These round, big, empty spaces are the fat cells. Having little trouble finding some capillaries. Here we are. Here’s an arteriole really. It’s part of the vascular system. You see the congealed plasma and here’s the endothelial cells on the inside lumen of this small part of the arterial system. Let’s hunt for a capillary. There’s got to be capillaries all throughout the tissue. Here’s even a smaller one. There’s some smooth muscle in the wall and you just see one endothelial cell there. It’s getting down smaller and smaller. The capillaries are essentially just tubes of endothelium. Here’s a capillary. See there’s no smooth muscle in the wall. See the plasma in the middle. It happens to be about two or three endothelial cells lining this. Simple squamous epithelium on the inside of vessels.
There’s capillaries even smaller than this that would be only one endothelial cell surrounding a tube. Small capillary. Let’s again now look to the outside of this tissue. We’re going to the surface of this mesentery. Here we are. Here’s connective tissue in here and you only see very few endothelial cells. They are just flattened up against the membrane. Now here is one. That’s about all the better that you’ll see this simple squamous epithelium on the outside. Let’s see if we can find some more. There’s a lot of artifact in this tissue. Scanning down here. And again all you pick up is the nuclei. Here’s a good one here. Think of this as a sheet of super squamous cells on the outside surface lining the gut to the heart, the diaphragm and the lungs. Simple cuboidal epithelium many time lines tubules or tubes. For classical example of this we’re going to show you a low power of kidney tubules. The kidney is composed essentially of millions and millions of tubules. Here we have the glomerular apparatus in the initial filtration for the kidneys. These aren’t the tubules that I want to show you. Here’s some longitudinal tubules in this area and here we have some crosscut tubules here. This is where we’ll look for our cuboidal epithelium. Now were going to switch to medium power. Notice here we have a tubule that’s crosscut. Here we have several cells lining this particular tubule.
Notice right up here to the left is a longitudinal section of the same kind of a tubule. These tubules are lined by simple cuboidal cells. See the cells are about as high as they are wide. The surface of this kind of tubule is smooth on this surface modification. Let’s look at some of the other tubules, ones that are a little more eosinophilic or red.These happen to be the proximal tubules and they have the surface specialization called the brush border. You see how the border is a little more variegated in these more eosinophilic staining proximal tubules. Let’s see if we can find some crosscut tubules in cross section. Little better example. Oh, here we go. Here is a proximal convoluted tubule. This is the lumen and here we have the cuboidal cells that line… look at the surface of this cell… lumen side or the apical side. This shows a brush border. Here’s another kind of tubule in the kidney with the smooth surface. I think we have one more power and we can see the brush border in higher magnification. The tubuli on the left is smooth surfaced. No one here has the brush border. Actually you’ve got to account for some fixation artifact here. These brushed borders, these microvillus specializations of the surface membrane actually fill the lumen. This very vastly increases the surface area of this particular cell for the diffusion and transport of materials from the urine back and forth. Notice here the brush border of the simple cuboidal cells. Let’s now go to simple columnar epithelium. Simple columnar epithelium lines the digestive tube in the small intestine and the colon. We’ll switch to low power. Remember digestive tract is a tube and we have epithelium both on the outside of this tube and on the inside of the tube. So on the inside of this tube we find simple columnar epithelium in the small intestine in the colon. Low power now for the digestive system. This is the simple columnar epithelium on inside or the lumen side of this section of small intestine. The wall of the small intestine is line by smooth muscle.
This is a smooth muscle. And on the outside there’s a mesothelium covering a simple squamous covering. Let’s look now medium power at these tall columnar cells. Here’s the epithelium. See these are tall columnar cells. There’s a connective tissue core. This is covered by the surface epithelium. These are tall columnar cells. There’s quite a bit of artifact in here. Here’d be the area where the basement membrane is. The nuclei of the cells. Now look carefully at the surface of this cell. See this border? That’s a so called striped cuticle or striated border. In addition to the tall columnar cells there’s also some goblet cells in here. It’s the same kind we described in the respiratory epithelium. The mucin is washed out giving more clear appearance to that. Now with columnar epithelium. Because of the cut it appears stratified so you really have to scan the slide to find more typical examples of the true epithelium. It’s a simple columnar epithelium. Here is a good picture of it here. There’s a striped cuticle. Here’s some goblet cells. And here’d be the area of the basement membrane. Let’s now discuss the stratified epithelia. First is stratified squamous. Surface cells are flat and there’s many layers of cells here. This is a low power view of the esophagus. Let’s recall that this stratified epithelia lines the skin, the mouth, the pharynx and the esophagus. Also the rectum and the vagina. All lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The epithelium here is thick. Here’s the connective tissue that underlies this particular epithelium. Let’s look around. This is low power now. This is the esophagus. This is a tube connecting food from the mouth to the stomach. See you get a general overall view of this epithelium. Even at this power you can see that the basal cells are staying a little darker than the surface cells. Alright now up to medium power. Connective tissue on the right and some muscle. In here we have the epithelium. Many time that connective tissue invaginates the epithelium as we see here and here. The surface cells here are squamous cells.
You see the flattened nuclei. And it’s a multilayered epithelium. So it’s a stratified squamous epithelium. Here’s a junction between the epithelium and the connective tissue. Let’s just scan around to get a little better configuration of this particular tissue. Here’s one of these connective tissue papillae. Really nicely shown here. This also again fortifies the fact the epithelium is an avascular structure. One more power for stratified squamous. Here’s the surface cells. The lumen to the left. These are flattened squamous cells. You can notice as we proceed to the right towards the basal end of this epithelium we have the transition into cuboidal cells. Let’s go towards the germinal layer. It’s these cells down here in basal area that are responsible for all the rest of the cells. The cells down here in the basal area multiply and divide and continue to produce the surface cells. The surface cells are actually sloughed and worn away through attrition and wear. There’s the surface flattened epithelial cells, squamous cells and here’s the basal cells. Here’s the connective tissue down below. Let’s now go to the next tissue, the example, the specific example of a stratified cuboidal epithelium that we’re going to call transitional epithelium. Stratified cuboidal epithelium also exists in the ducts of certain glands. I think we should make it clear though we’re using the term transitional for stratified cuboidal. Now many authors would not agree with this unification of the two terms. So whenever you see the epithelium, typical epithelium, lining the urethra, ureter and bladder that we’re going to demonstrate now, call it transitional not stratified cuboidal. Now we’re going to show it in its relaxed state under the microscope. Notice we have a lumen. It’s filled with some debris here. This is the epithelium. Also the basal cells here are more basophilic or blue appearing. And it is surrounded by some muscle on the outside. Under medium power we see the transitional epithelium.
There’s debris in the middle of the lumen below. Here’s the epithelium in the junction between the connective tissue and the transitional epithelium. Notice we don’t see much of a basement membrane. This is an important distinguishing characteristic for this particular epithelium. It’s going to help you be able to distinguish this epithelium between this and the respiratory type of epithelium that we’re going to show you next. One more power, higher power of this. This happens to be the ureter. It’s a tube coming from the kidney to the bladder. Notice the surface cells here to the right are cuboidal. Basal cells up in the upper left also cuboidal. Let’s look around this epithelium. The lumen’s on the left now. And basal cells and connective tissue to the right. Now this is showing the transitional epithelium in a more relaxed state. Now when it’s distended it’s going to be thinner and the surface cells will appear more squamous like. One more distinguishing characteristic…really two more…These cells are sometimes called umbrella cells. I’ll show you the reason. Now look at this appears to be umbrella shaped cells. One other characteristic some time you see is so co called pseudo cuticle which is really just the staining of the surface of this particular epithelium. It’s just a pseudo cuticle. That’s an example of transitional epithelium. It will be found in many different states. This happens to be a more relaxed state. Stratified columnar epithelium which we’re going to show you as pseudostratified columnar epithelium, lines the nasal cavity and the passage leading to the respiratory part of the lung. Want to depict this on a section of trachea. It’ll show you a pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The lumen of course on the right. Proceeding from right to left you see some mucin that’s been fixed. Here’s the epithelium and the connective tissue underlying it.
There happens to be some glands in the connective tissue here and into the far left a piece of tracheal cartilage. Medium power will show us the characteristic designation found in the basement membrane. A very unique characteristic of this epithelium, a thick basement membrane. Mucin on the right and the cartilage on the left. The junction between the connective tissue and the epithelium is the basement membrane made up of reticular fibers and mucopolysaccharides ground substance. And it’s shown here as a [inaudible] like glassy appearing thick basement membrane right here. Now let’s look at the epithelium in the cilia on the surface under high power. See the basement membrane depicted here in the middle of the section. The cells in this epithelium, the nuclei are found at all different levels. It’s one of the characteristics of this pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Here’s the surface specialization seen in light microscope. This is a true cilia. This line running here is called basal bodies. It’s actually where the cilia are derived from. There’s thousands of cilia on each cell. And this is a…mucin of course is separated from the cell here. That would be found on the surface of this epithelium and it’s the mucin that they cilia beat towards the oral cavity. Occasionally you’ll find other cells in this epithelium. There will be lymphocytes or blood cells going through the epithelium. Not many mucin goblet cells here. Looks like most of them have been extruded in the mucin. Let’s scan through here. Here’s some mucin goblet cells.
Here’s a blood cell passing from the connective tissue into the lumen of this respiratory. Here’s another one here. Not as many goblet cells as you’d expect to see. Here’s one here and here. Now that’s respiratory epithelium. We’ve covered now in general concept most of the epithelial tissues. You should be able to list these specific epithelial and give at least one or two examples of where they’re found in the body. We’ve covered the simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar epithelia and the stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, specific one, transitional and we covered stratified columnar epithelium or pseudostratified columnar epithelium ciliated with goblet cells. That concludes our discussion of epithelia.
Just ask your dentist to read the labels on the packaging from the amalgam manufacturers. It scares you. If you read that, it really scares you. It talks about toxicity, how it can affect your nervous system, your liver, your kidneys. In the state of…